The United Brotherhood of Carpenters & Joiners was founded. Its leader was one of the great unionists of the 19th century, Peter J. McGuire. Under his leadership, the union won the eight-hour workday and wages that more than doubled, and he built union membership to more than 167,000 members by 1903. McGuire also crafted a lasting and historical memorial to all workers—the Labor Day holiday. McGuire and the Carpenters union were key players in the founding of the American Federation of Labor, the predecessor to today's AFL-CIO.